logo
  • sm

Bibliography

Learn more about the earthworks in Ohio

Ancient Ohio Valley Cultures, Works, Interpretations

  • Abrams, Elliot M., and AnnCorinne Freter, eds. The Emergence of the Moundbuilders: The Archaeology of Tribal Societies in Southwestern Ohio. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2005.
  • Atwater, Caleb. “Description of the Antiquities Discovered in the State of Ohio and Other Western States.” Archaeologia Americana: Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society 1 (1820), 109-251.
  • Aveni, Anthony, ed.¸ Foundations of New World Cultural Astronomy: A Reader with Commentary. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2008.
  • Baugh, Timothy G., and Jonathan E. Ericson, eds. Prehistoric Exchange Systems in North America. New York: Plenum Press, 1994.
  • Beardsley, John. Earthworks and Beyond: Contemporary Art in the Landscape. 3rd ed. New York: Abbeville Press, 1998.
  • Brose, David S., and N'omi M. Greber. Hopewell Archaeology: The Chillicothe Conference. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1979.
  • Byers, A. Martin. The Ohio Hopewell Episode. Akron, Ohio: The University of Akron Press, 2004.
  • Byers, A. Martin, and DeeAnne Wymer, eds. Hopewell Settlement Patterns, Subsistence, and Symbolic Landscapes. Gainesville: University of Florida, 2010.
  • Carr, Christopher, and D. Troy Case. Gathering Hopewell: Society, Ritual, and Ritual Interaction. Secaucus, New Jersey: Springer, 2005.
  • Case, D.Troy, and Christopher Carr. The Scioto Hopewell and Their Neighbors: Bioarchaeological Documentation and Cultural Understanding, Secaucus, New Jersey: Springer, 2008.
  • Charles, Douglas K., and Jane E. Buikstra, eds., Recreating Hopewell. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006.
  • Connolly, Robert. Middle Woodland Hilltop Enclosures: The Built Environment, Construction, and Function. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, 1996.
  • Cowan, C. Wesley. First Farmers of the Middle Ohio Valley. Cincinnati: Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, 1987.
  • Dancey, William S., and Paul J. Pacheco, eds. Ohio Hopewell Community Organization. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1997.
  • DeBoer, Warren R. “Ceremonial Centers from Cayapas (Esmeraldas, Eduador) to Chillicothe (Ohio, U.S.A.).” The Cambridge Archaeological Journal 7, No. 2 (October, 1997): 225-253.
  • Greber, N’omi. “A Study of Continuity and Contrast Between Central Scioto Adena and Hopewell Sites.” West Virginia Archaeologist 43, nos. 1 and 2 (Spring and Fall 1991): 1-26.
  • Jakes, Kathryn A., and A. Thompson. “Textile Evidence for Ohio Hopewell Burial Practices.” Southeastern Archaeology 24:2 (winter 2005), 137-141.
  • Kennedy, Roger. Hidden Cities: The Discovery and Loss of Ancient North American Civilization. New York: The Free Press (Macmillan), 1994.
  • King, J.C.H. First Peoples, First Contacts: Native Peoples of North America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.
  • Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio: Orange Frazer Press, 2005.
  • Lilly, Eli. Prehistoric Antiquities of Indiana. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1937.
  • Mainfort, Robert C., Jr., and Lynne P. Sullivan, eds. Ancient Earthen Enclosures of the Eastern Woodlands. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998.
  • Mills, William C. Archaeological Atlas of Ohio. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1914.
  • Milner, George R. The Moundbuilders: Ancient Peoples of Eastern North America. London: Thames and Hudson, 2004.
  • Morgan, William N. Prehistoric Architecture in the Eastern United States. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1980.
  • Nabokov, Peter, and Robert Easton. Native American Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • National Park Service Midwest Archaeology Center. Hopewell Archaeology Newsletter
  • Ohio Historical Society. Ohio Historical Society Homepage
  • Pacheco, Paul J., ed. A View from the Core: A Synthesis of Ohio Hopewell Archaeology. Columbus: The Ohio Archaeological Council, 1996.
  • Romain, William F. Mysteries of the Hopewell: Astronomers, Geometers, and Magicians of the Eastern Woodlands. Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press, 2000.
  • Rockwell, David. Giving Voice to Bear: North American Indian Myths, Rituals, and Images of the Bear. Niwat, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1991.
  • Seeman, Mark F. The Hopewell Interaction Sphere: The Evidence for Inter-Regional Trade and Structural Complexity. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, Prehistory Research Series 5:2 (1979).
  • Smith, Bruce D. “Hopewellian Farmers of Eastern North America.” In Rivers of Change: Essays on Early Agriculture in Eastern North America., ed. Bruce Smith. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
  • Squier, Ephraim G., and Edwin H. Davis. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 1 [1848], edited with introduction by David J. Meltzer. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1998.
  • Thomas, Cyrus. Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology. Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-1891. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1894.
  • Townsend, Richard F., ed. Hero, Hawk and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South. Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago and Yale University Press, 2004.
  • Webb, William S., and Raymond S. Baby. The Adena People No. 2. Columbus: The Ohio Historical Society, 1957.
  • Willoughby, Charles C. The Art of the Great Earthwork Builders of Ohio: Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1916.
  • Woodward, Susan L., and Jerry N. McDonald. Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley: A Guide to Mounds and Earthworks of the Adena, Hopewell, Cole, and Fort Ancient People. Blacksburg, Viginia: The McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co., 2002.

Earthwork Site-Specific Works

Cincinnati

  • Drake, Daniel. Natural and Statistical View, or Picture of Cincinnati and the Miami Country. Cincinnati: Looker and Wallace, 1815.
  • Starr, S. Frederick. The Archaeology of Hamilton County, Ohio (The Journal of the Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, 23: 1 [June, 1960]). Cincinnati, Ohio: Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, 1960.

Circleville

  • [Early accounts in Squier and Davis, and in Atwater: see general listing above.]
  • Harden, Ned, and W.W. Higgins. Roundtown Reminiscences. Circleville, OH: Fitzpatrick’s Printery, 1976.
  • Reps, John. Town Planning in Frontier America. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1980.

Fort Ancient

  • [Early accounts in Squier and Davis and in Atwater: see general listing above.]
  • Blosser, Jack, and Robert C. Glotzhober. Fort Ancient: Citadel, Cemetery, Cathedral, or Calendar? Columbus: Ohio Historical Society, 1995.
  • Connolly, Robert P. “Prehistoric Land Modification at the Fort Ancient Hilltop Enclosure.” In A View from the Core: A Synthesis of Ohio Hopewell Archaeology, ed. Paul J. Pacheco. Columbus: The Ohio Archaeological Council, 1996, 260-271.
  • Connolly, Robert P., and Bradley T. Lepper, eds. The Fort Ancient Earthworks: Prehistoric Lifeways of the Hopewell Culture in Southwestern Ohio. Columbus: Ohio Historical Society, 2004.
  • Moorehead, Warren K. Fort Ancient: The Great Prehistoric Earthwork of Warren County. Cincinnati, Ohio: Robert Clarke, 1890.

High Bank Earthworks

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Hively, Ray, and Robert Horn. “Hopewellian Geometry and Astronomy at High Bank.” Archaeoastronomy 7 (1984): S85-S100
  • National Park Service. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park

Hopeton Earthworks

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Midwest Archaeological Center, National Park Service. “Hopeton Earthworks and Hopewell Culture.” Featured project description at the website.
  • National Park Service. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park

Hopewell Mound Group

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Greber, N’omi. The Hopewell Mound Group: Its People and Their Legacy (CD-ROM). Columbus: The Ohio Historical Society, 1995.
  • Greber, N’omi and Katharine C. Ruhl. The Hopewell Site: A Contemporary Analysis Based on the Work of Charles C. Willoughby. Revised edition. Ft. Washington, PA: Eastern National, 2000.
  • Moorehead, Warren C. The Hopewell Mound Group of Ohio. Publication 211: Anthropological Series VI, no. 5. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1922.
  • Shetrone, Henry C. Exploration of the Hopewell Group of Prehistoric Earthworks. Columbus: Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 35: 1-227. (Available online at Ohio History , under “Ohio History Journal Online.”
  • National Park Service. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park

Marietta

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • MacLean, J.P. “Ancient Works at Marietta, Ohio.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 12, No.1 (January 1903): 37-66. Available online at Ohio History , under “Ohio History Journal Online.”
  • Wymer, Dee Anne. “The Ohio Hopewell Econiche: Human-Land Interaction in the Core Area.” In A View from the Core: A Synthesis of Ohio Hopewell Archaeology, ed. Paul J. Pacheco. Columbus: The Ohio Archaeological Council, 1996.

Miami Fort

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Ballantyne, Marianne R. Miami Fort: An Ancient Hydraulic Structure. M.A. Thesis, University of Cincinnati Department of Anthropology, 2009; available online.

Mound City

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Barnhart, Terry A. “An American Menagerie: The Cabinet of Squier and Davis.” Timeline 2, No.6 (December 1985-January 1986): 2-17.
  • Brown, James. Inventory and Integrative Analysis: Excavations of Mound City, Ross County, Ohio; Overview of Archaeological Investigations of the Mound City Group National Monument, Part 1: RECOMMENDATIONS, Exploration History. Report to the Mound City Group National Monument, January, 1994.
  • Mills, William C. “Exploration of the Mound City Group.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 31 (1922): 423-584. Available online at Ohio History , under “Ohio History Journal Online.”
  • National Park Service. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park

Newark Earthworks

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Hively, Ray, and Robert Horn. “Geometry and Astronomy in Prehistoric Ohio.” Journal for the History of Astronomy 13, supplement, Archaeoastronomy 4 (1982): S1-S20.
  • Hooge, Paul E. and Bradley T. Lepper, eds. Vanishing Heritage. Newark, Ohio: Licking County Archaeology and Landmarks Society, 1992.
  • Law, Tom, Rebecca Hawkins, and James Liftin. Searching for the Great Hopewell Road (videocassette, 57 mins.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Pangea Productions, 1998.
  • Lepper, Bradley T. “Ancient Astronomers of the Ohio Valley.” Timeline 15, no. 1 (1998): 2-11.
  • Lepper, Bradley T. The Newark Earthworks: A Wonder of the Ancient World. Columbus: Ohio Historical Society, 2002.
  • Lepper, Bradley T. “Tracking Ohio's Great Hopewell Road.” Archaeology 48, no. 6 (1995): 52-56.
  • Shiels, Richard. Octagon Moonrise. Website sponsored by the Newark Earthworks Center, Ohio State University Newark.

Pollock Works

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Riordan, Robert V. “A Construction Sequence for a Middle Woodland Hilltop Enclosure.” Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 20 (1995), 62-104.

Portsmouth Earthworks

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Henderson, A.Gwynn, David Pollack, and Douglas R. Cropper. “The Old Fort Earthworks in Greenup County, Kentucky.” In New Deal Era Archaeology and Current Research in Kentucky. Lexington: Kentucky Heritage Council, 1988: 64-81.

Seip Earthworks

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Greber, N’omi. “Two Geometric Enclosures in the Paint Creek Valley: An Estimate of Possible Changes in Community Patterns Through Time.” In Ohio Hopewell Community Organization, ed. William S. Dancey and Paul J. Pacheco. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1997.
  • Mills, William C. “Explorations of the Seip Mound.” Ohio Historical and Archaeological Quarterly 18:3 (July, 1909), 269-321. Available online at Ohio History , under “Ohio History Journal Online.”
  • National Park Service. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park
  • Shetrone, Henry C., and Emerson P. Greenman. “Explorations of the Seip Group of Pre-Historic Earthworks.” Ohio Historical and Archaeological Quarterly 40:3 (July, 1931), 343-509. Available online at Ohio History , under “Ohio History Journal Online.”

Serpent Mound

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Fletcher, Robert V., T. L. Cameron, Bradley T. Lepper, Dee Anne Wymer, and William Pickard. “Serpent Mound: A Fort Ancient Icon?” Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 21: 1 (1996), 105-143.
  • Lepper, Bradley T. “Great Serpent.” Timeline 15:5 (1998), 30-45.
  • Putnam, Frederic W. “The Serpent Mound of Ohio.” Century Illustrated Magazine 39 (1890): 871-888.
  • Willoughby, Charles C. “The Serpent Mound of Adams County, Ohio.” American Anthropologist 21:2 (1919), 153-163.

Stubbs Earthworks

  • Cowan, Frank L., and T.S. Sunderhaus. “Dating the Stubbs ‘Woodworks.’” The Ohio Archaeological Council Newsletter 14 (2002): 11-16.
  • Cowan, Frank L., T. S. Sunderhaus and R. A. Genheimer. “Notes from the Field: An Update from the Stubbs Earthworks Site.” The Ohio Archaeological Council Newsletter 10:2 (1998): 6-13.
  • Cowan, Frank L., T. S. Sunderhaus and R. A. Genheimer. “Notes from the Field: More Hopewell Houses at the Stubbs Earthworks Site.” The Ohio Archaeological Council Newsletter 11:2 (1999):11-16.
  • Starr, S. Frederick. The Archaeology of Hamilton County, Ohio (The Journal of the Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, 23: 1 [June, 1960]). Cincinnati, Ohio: Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, 1960.
  • Whittlesey, Charles. Descriptions of Ancient Works in Ohio. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 3 (7). Washington, D.C., 1851.

Tremper Mound

  • [Early account in Squier and Davis: see general listing above.]
  • Mills, William C. “Explorations of the Tremper Mound.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 25 (1916) 262-389. Available online at Ohio History , under “Ohio History Journal Online.”
  • Otto, Martha P. “Masterworks in Pipestone: Treasures from the Tremper Mound.” Timeline 1 (October, 1984), 18-33.

Turner Earthworks

  • Willoughby, Charles C. and Earnest A. Hooton. The Turner Group of Earthworks, Hamilton County, Ohio. Paper of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 8: 3. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1922

Early Ohio History and Environment

  • Barnhart, Terry A. Ephraim George Squier and the Development of American Anthropology. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005.
  • Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.
  • Knepper, George. Ohio and Its People (3rd ed.). Kent, Ohio: Kent University Press, 2003.
  • Knepper, George. The Official Ohio Lands Book. Columbus, OH: Auditor of State, 2002. Available online.
  • Lisska, Anthony, ed. Granville, Ohio: A Study in Continuity and Change. Granville, OH: Granville Historical Society, 2004.
  • Thrane, Susan. County Courthouses of Ohio. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2000.
  • Wilhelm, Hubert. The Ohio Settlement Series (3 videos, originally shown on public television). Athens, Ohio: Ohio Landscape Productions, 1995.

Native American History and Perspectives

  • Cajete, Gregory. Native Science: Natural Laws of Interdependence. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers, 2000.
  • Chaudhuri, Jean, and Joyotpaul Chaudhuri. A Sacred Path: The Way of the Muskogee Creeks. Los Angeles: UCLA American Indian Center, 2001.
  • Echo-Hawk, Roger C. “Ancient History in the New World: Integrating Oral Traditions and the Archaeological Record.” American Antiquity 65, No. 2 (2000): 267-290.
  • Hall, Robert L. An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
  • Mann, Barbara. Native Americans, Archaeologists, and the Mounds. New York: Peter Lang, 2003.
  • Miller, Jay. “Instilling the Earth: Explaining Mounds.” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 25:3 (2001), 161-177.
  • Olmstead, Earl P. David Zeisberger: A Life Among the Indians. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1997.
  • Warren, Stephen. The Shawnees and Their Neighbors, 1795-1870. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2005.

See the ancient earthworks in OHIO as never before possible!