How new tools are enabling new discoveries at previously-explored sites; demonstration by Dr. Jarrod Burks, then a curator at Hopewell Culture National Historical Park.
Naming these Cultures
Historian Dr. Geoffrey Plank talks urges caution in using the common archaeological categories to define ancient groups, beliefs, or practices.
Archaeologist Martha Otto, former curator at the Ohio Historical Society, talks about how to characterize the "Adena" culture (800 BC to AD 100).
Archaeologist Dr. Mark Seeman discusses the relation between the hills and valleys of the Ohio River landscape and the formations of the earthworks and mounds.
Archaeologist Dr. James Brown explains how the earthworks may have been scenes of ritual adoption and the spiritual reincarnation of revered ancestors.
The Cosmological Plan
Dr. James Brown suggests that the geometric earthworks reflected the cosmos on earth, allowing potential enemies to meet within a common order.